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Macedonian Flora
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Pine tree

Mt. Pelister, Bitola is known for the presence of the endemic Macedonian Pine, as well as some 88 species of plants representing almost 30 percent of Macedonian dendroflora. The Macedonian Pine forests on Mt. Pelister are divided into two communities; pine forests with ferns and pine forests with junipers. The Macedonian Pine, as a specific conifer species, is a relic of tertiary flora and  the autochthonous five-needle pine Molika, was first noted on Mt. Pelister in 1893.

Macedonia's limited forest growth also includes Macedonian Oaks, the sycamore, weeping willows, white willows, alders, poplars, elms, and the common ash. Near the rich pastures on Mt. Sar and Mt. Bistra, Mavrovo, is another plant species characteristic of plant life in Macedonia -- the poppy. The quality of thick poppy juice is measured worldwide by morphine units; while Chinese opium contains eight such units and is considered to be of high quality, Indian opium contains seven units, and Turkish opium only six, Macedonian opium contains a full 14 morphine units and is undoubtedly the best quality opium in the world.

From Macedonia Yesterday and Today by Jovan Pavlovski & Misel Pavlovski (

Translated by: Zaharija Pavlovska

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